anton_nazarov: (Default)
Вот попалось на глаза, вдруг кому-то интересно или надо реферат к экзамену по философии написать:

http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.0981

The Early History of String Theory and Supersymmetry
John H. Schwarz

This lecture presents a brief overview of the early history of string theory and supersymmetry. It describes how the S-matrix theory program for understanding the strong nuclear force evolved into superstring theory, which is a promising framework for constructing a unified quantum theory of all forces including gravity. The period covered begins with S-matrix theory in the mid 1960s and ends with the widespread acceptance of superstring theory in the mid 1980s. Further details and additional references can be found in Schwarz (2007).
anton_nazarov: (Default)
From: Cristian Chidesa <graviton21@gmail.com>
Subject: a spectacular topic in physics
To: antonnaz@gmail.com
Date: Sun, 28 Aug 2011 06:46:29 +0300

Sir,
 I'm writing this letter to you assuming that you might
be interested in artificial gravity / gravity shielding.
 If you consider my Email inappropriate, then please accept
my apologies and please do ignore this Email.

 In one of the images that I found on Internet about the
experiments made in 1992 by russian specialist in physics
and chemistry, dr Eugene Podkletnov, we see a ring made of
superconducting material levitating above several electromagnets. 
Mr Podkletnov obtained a 2% loss of weight for objects placed
above the rotating ring.

There exists an interview with dr Podkletnov posted on Internet:
http://www.ufo-blogger.com/2010/12/antigravity-dr-eugene-podkletnov-talks.html
 or,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AgyAFElQZcU&feature=player_embedded#!

I tried to make a rough analogy with an air propeller of
an airplane: if such air propeller would be a disk or a ring,
the effect on the air would be neglectable and the airplane
could not fly. So, the geometry of the air propeller is very
important for an airplane and the performance of such air
propeller depends also on its geometry (not only on its
rotating speed).

 Perhaps physicists could try to repeat the experiment of
Mr Podkletnov but instead of a rotating ring (or disk), they
should use something like a propeller with oblique blades and
having powerful flat capacitors with (parallel) superconducting
plates mounted on those (oblique) blades. Such capacitors will be
charged with high voltage, so the insulating layer between the
plates should be made of a very good insulating material.
 Such capacitors could have several layers, something like
 p+ | i1 | p- | i2 | p- | i1 | p+ | i2 | p+ | i1 | p- ,  where
"i1" and "i2" denote insulating materials, "p+" denotes a
superconducting plate with deficit of electrons and "p-" denotes
a superconducting plate with excess of electrons.

 Those capacitors will be (re)charged at regular intervals of time by
a power supply which will be stationary in relation to the propeller.
The propeller will be mounted on a rotating shaft.
 The (stationary) power supply will feed with AC current a stationary
electromagnet, which in its turn, will transfer AC current through
electromagnetic induction to an electromagnet (with hollow core)
mounted on the propeller rotating shaft.
 That AC current will be rectified, transformed in DC current by using
diodes also mounted on the rotating shaft and the DC current will be
used to (re)charge the capacitors mounted on the propeller blades.

 When I propose this experiment, I take into account the hypothese
made by Tesla, dr Eugene Podkletnov, dr Claude Poher, which states
that it would exist extremely small particles, let's call them
universons (like Claude Poher did), much more smaller than electrons.
 The universons would be spread everywhere, even in interplanetary
space and would form the aether (Tesla).

 I don't know if all universons are of the same type having both
electromagnetic and gravitic properties or there are several types
of universons (?), some of them with electromagnetic properties
and others with gravitic properties. If there exist a distinct
type of universons with gravitic properties then I'll call them
gravitons (by convention), so in that case gravitons will be a
subcategory of universons. Otherwise (i.e. if all universons have
gravitic properties) graviton will be synonymous with universon.

 The universons might behave like gas molecules (i.e. disordered,
chaotic movement) in the absence of an electromagnetic field or a
gravitational field.
 But in the presence of an electromagnetic field or a
gravitational field, the universons would go in a special state
in which the universons would have less degrees of freedom.
 In this special state, the universons can occupy only specific
energy levels in a 3D lattice, something similar with electrons
which can occupy only specific energy levels in atoms (it's just
a rough analogy) but the universons could also shift from one
position to another in that 3D lattice.
 That 3D lattice would endow the aether with "elastic" properties
in the proximity of the field source (???).

 According to this very rudimentary pseudo-model for the aether,
when the blades having capacitors with superconducting plates rotate
fast enough, they would create a flow of gravitons in one specific
direction (?!) which could modify the distribution of gravitons on the
two sides (in front and behind) of the propeller (i.e. polarization
of vacuum space as Harold Puthoff said), so the propeller could be
submitted to an artificial gravitational force on the side with more
gravitons.  If the axis of the propeller is disposed vertically and
this region with an increasing density of gravitons is above the
propeller then the propeller would partially or totally loose its
weight.

 Mr Podkletnov has used superconducting materials in his
experiments because such materials allow the electrons to go
into a special state, Bose condensate, in which the electrons
cluster very tightly in some dense "cloud" of electrons.
 And this can significantly increase the effect on the universons
for a moving object made of superconducting material and crossed
by electric current.
 For the same reason, I think that the capacitors (mounted on
the rotating propeller) should have plates made of superconducting
material.

 Such experiments with a rotating propeller having charged
capacitors on its blades, should be made in a vacuum chamber
in order to avoid the creation of an air flow and to avoid also
any possible ionization phenomenon (or even worse, an electrical
discharge through ionized air).

 It might be possible that some possible electrogravitic effect
do not appear immediately when such propeller begins to rotate.
 Maybe, a certain critical density of gravitons has to be reached
before an attractive force begins to manifest on one side of the
rotating propeller (the side with an increasing density of
gravitons).
 Even more, perhaps the rotating movement of the propeller will
have to be accelerated in order to obtain an electrogravitic
effect.

 Now, assuming that it is indeed possible to polarize the vacuum
space by using rotating charged capacitors, then what if the
generated flow of gravitons (being created in that manner) would
extremely fast dissipate into the enormous surrounding "ocean" of
free gravitons ???
 If affirmative then any possible electrogravitic effect would be
difficult to observe and measure.
 So, we might need an additional technique to "collect" the
gravitons from that flow of gravitons and compress, accumulate
those gravitons in a small region in order to create a more
significant effect of artificial gravity (???).
 Perhaps, something like a magnetic vortex could do that job ???
The specialists in electromagnetism should know how to produce
a magnetic vortex.

 On the other hand, it is difficult to believe that future
modern spaceships will use this technique (i.e. rotating
charged capacitors) as a means of propulsion in space.
 But first of all, such experiments should prove the assumption
that the universons/gravitons really exist and the vacuum space
is not empty, (i.e. exactly what Tesla, dr Podkletnov,
dr Claude Poher said). In the same time, rotating powerful
charged capacitors might be the simpliest way to try to obtain
measurable electrogravitic effects.

 I made a lot of suppositions, hypothesis and I have no answers,
no concrete solutions. If such experiments would be successful
(i.e. measurable electrogravitic effects) then this would provide
also valuable information for a theoretical model for gravity at
subatomic level.
 
 I apologize for my rough explanation. I have no special degree
in physics, I am just particularly interested in this spectacular
topic in physics.

       Kind Regards,
           Cristian Chidesa

N.B. 1) Documents about the work of dr Podkletnov, dr Claude Poher
and Harold Puthoff are freely available on Internet.
2) In year 2000, russian physicist, Mr Nesvizhevsky, has made important
experiments in France (Grenoble) with ultracold neutrons which suggest
that gravity is rather quantic than a property of space-time.

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